The Treasury Laws Amendment (More Competition, Better Prices) Act 2022 (Cth) (Act) received Royal Assent on 9 November 2022, introducing a number of significant changes to the ‘unfair contract term’ (UCT) regime in Schedule 2 of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth) (Australian Consumer Law) and the Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001 (Cth). The expanded UCT regime will commence on 9 November 2023, and will apply to standard form small business and consumer contracts that are made, renewed or varied on or after that date.
This Alert just applies to standard form small business contracts covered by the Australian Consumer Law. Now that they may be subject to substantial penalties if they are not compliant very soon, it is essential that businesses review their standard form small business contracts for UCTs as a matter of urgency.
- The new expanded UCT regime will commence on 9 November 2023 and will apply to contracts entered into, renewed or varied on or after this date.
- Individuals and businesses may face substantial pecuniary penalties for proposing or purporting to rely on UCTs.
- The ‘headcount’ threshold for a business party to a ‘small business contract’ increases from fewer than 20 employees to fewer than 100 employees, which significantly expands the number of businesses which will be protected.
- The monetary thresholds for small business contracts are removed, meaning that many more contracts will be covered by the UCT regime.
- The Court’s powers will be expanded, including the power to make orders to void, vary or refuse to enforce the contract or to redress any loss or damage or likely loss or damage.
MAIN LEGISLATIVE CHANGES
1. Expanding the concept of ‘standard form contract’
The UCT provisions apply to an unfair term of a small business contract that is also a standard form contract.
The Act now clarifies the fact that a contract may still be a standard form contract, despite the existence of an opportunity for a party to negotiate minor changes to the contract or to select a term from a range of pre-determined options. This means that there is likely to be significantly more contracts which are considered standard form and therefore captured by the UCT regime.
2. Broadening the meaning of ‘small business contract’
At present, many small businesses are excluded from the UCT protections due to the relatively low thresholds within the definition of ‘small business contract’. Currently, to be a ‘small business contract’:
- at least one party to the contract must employ fewer than 20 employees; and
- the upfront price payable under the contract must not exceed $300,000, or $1,000,000 if it is for a duration of more than 12 months.
However, from 9 November 2023, the Act will substantially broaden the definition of ‘small business contract’ to cover a contract for a supply of goods or services (or a sale or grant of an interest in land), at least one party to which satisfies either or both of the following conditions:
- the party makes the contract in the course of carrying on a business and at a time when it employs fewer than 100 persons; or
- the party’s turnover in the last income year was less than $10 million.
The monetary thresholds for a ‘small business contract’ have been removed. The Act’s explanatory memorandum indicates that these monetary thresholds have been eroded by inflation and are now too low to effectively reflect the range of contracts entered into by small businesses and they do not accommodate small businesses in industries where high value contracts with low profit margins are common.
These amendments significantly increase the number of ‘small business contracts’ which will be protected by the UCT regime and will expand its application to more substantial businesses which may not initially appear to be small businesses.
3. Pecuniary Penalties for UCTs
Before the introduction of the Act, UCTs did not attract any pecuniary penalties. Rather, any UCT found in a standard form small business contract was merely deemed void or unenforceable.
However, the new UCT regime will allow the Court to impose a pecuniary penalty on a person or business for proposing an unfair term or applying or relying on (or purporting to apply or rely on) an unfair term. A person who contravenes the new UCT regime will be found to commit a separate contravention in respect of each such term which is found to be unfair.
The maximum monetary penalty will be $2,500,000 for an individual and, for a body corporate, the greater of:
- $50 million;
- if the Court can determine the value of the benefit obtained directly or indirectly that is reasonably attributable to the breach, 3 times the value of that benefit; and
- if the value of the benefit cannot be determined, 30% of the adjusted turnover of the body corporate during the breach turnover period (i.e. the longer of the period over which the breach occurred or the 12 months ending when the breach ceased).
These penalties are clearly substantial.
4. Powers of the Court
The Act gives greater discretionary powers to the Court where a contract term is found to be unfair. The Court will be able to make orders voiding, varying or refusing to enforce all of a contract, or part thereof, to redress loss or damage that has been caused, or is likely to be caused, by the unfair term(s).
The Court will also be empowered to make any such orders (other than an award of damages) the Court thinks fit to prevent a term, which is the same as, or substantially similar to, an unfair term, being included in any advantaged party’s future contracts or to redress (in whole or part) any loss or damage caused, or likely to be caused, by such a term in any other existing contract entered into by the advantaged party.
Persons who contravene, or are involved in the contravention of, the new UCT provisions may also be disqualified by the Court from managing corporations.
All businesses who utilise standard form, small business (or consumer) contracts should review those documents now, to remove any UCTs before 9 November 2023.
Examples of what terms may be considered UCTs can be found in our previous Legal Alert accessed here.
This Alert is intended as general information only. It does not purport to be comprehensive advice or legal advice. Readers must seek professional advice before acting in relation to these matters.